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培根散文随笔集中英对照,通过阅读文学名著学语言,是掌握英语的绝佳方法。既可接触原汁原味的英语,又能享受文学之美,一举两得,何乐不为?
对于喜欢阅读名著的读者,这是一个最好的时代,因为有成千上万的书可以选择;这又是一个不好的时代,因为在浩繁的卷帙中,很难找到适合自己的好书。而培根的散文随笔,浓缩的不仅仅是文学,还是智慧。相信对阅读和写作都有很好的帮助。

Of Gardens 说花园 汉译
水天同 译

GOD Almighty first planted a garden. And indeed it is the purest of human pleasures. It is the greatest refreshment to the spirits of man; without which, buildings and palaces are but gross handiworks; and a man shall ever see, that when ages grow to civility and elegancy, men come to build stately sooner than to garden finely; as if gardening were the greater perfection. I do hold it, in the royal ordering of gardens, there ought to be gardens, for all the months in the year; in which severally things of beauty may be then in season. For December, and January, and the latter part of November, you must take such things as are green all winter: holly; ivy; bays; juniper; cypress-trees; yew; pine-apple-trees; fir-trees; rosemary; lavender; periwinkle, the white, the purple, and the blue; germander; flags; orangetrees; lemon-trees; and myrtles, if they be stoved; and sweet marjoram, warm set. There followeth, for the latter part of January and February, the mezereon-tree, which then blossoms; crocus vernus, both the yellow and the grey; primroses, anemones; the early tulippa; hyacinthus orientalis; chamairis; fritellaria. For March, there come violets, specially the single blue, which are the earliest; the yellow daffodil; the daisy; the almond-tree in blossom; the peach-tree in blossom; the cornelian-tree in blossom; sweet-briar. In April follow the double white violet; the wallflower; the stock-gilliflower; the cowslip; flowerdelices, and lilies of all natures; rosemary-flowers; the tulippa; the double peony; the pale daffodil; the French honeysuckle; the cherry-tree in blossom; the damson and plum-trees in blossom; the white thorn in leaf; the lilac-tree. In May and June come pinks of all sorts, specially the blushpink; roses of all kinds, except the musk, which comes later; honeysuckles; strawberries; bugloss; columbine; the French marigold, flos Africanus; cherry-tree in fruit; ribes; figs in fruit; rasps; vineflowers; lavender in flowers; the sweet satyrian, with the white flower; herba muscaria; lilium convallium; the apple-tree in blossom. In July come gilliflowers of all varieties; musk-roses; the lime-tree in blossom; early pears and plums in fruit; jennetings, codlins. In August come plums of all sorts in fruit; pears; apricocks; berberries; filberds; musk-melons; monks-hoods, of all colors. In September come grapes; apples; poppies of all colors; peaches; melocotones; nectarines; cornelians; wardens; quinces. In October and the beginning of November come services; medlars; bullaces; roses cut or removed to come late; hollyhocks; and such like. These particulars are for the climate of London; but my meaning is perceived, that you may have ver perpetuum, as the place affords.
万能的上帝是头一个经营花园者。园艺之事也的确是人生乐趣中之最纯洁者。它是人类精神底最大的补养品,若没有它则房舍宫邸都不过是粗糙的人造品,与自然无关。再者我们常可以见到当某些时代进于文明风雅的时候,人们多是先想到堂皇的建筑而后想到精美的园亭;好象园艺是较大的一种完美似的。我以为在皇家花园底经营中,应该一年之中每个月都有花圃;在其中可以每月各有当令的美丽的花木。为了十二月,一月和十一月的下半月,你必须种植一冬常绿的东西:如冬青、常春藤、月桂、杜松、柏树、水松、波罗蜜树、枞树、迷迭香、熏衣草、长春花(白的紫的和蓝的)、石蚕花、菖蒲、香橙、柠檬、桃金娘(如果能设法保温不使受寒的话),和香茉沃剌那,不过要种在墙下向日之处才行。在这些以后,为一月底下半月和二月,应当栽培在那时发花的樱楮树、番红花、黄灰两色的都可;樱草、白头翁、早开的郁金香、荷兰风信子、小鸢尾、贝母。到了三月则有香堇菜,尤其是单瓣蓝色的那一种,它们是开得最早的;黄水仙、雏菊、杏花、桃花、山茱萸花、野蔷薇。在四月里接着来的则有双瓣的白香堇、黄紫罗兰花、香紫罗兰、黄花九轮草、蝴蝶花、各种的百合花、迷迭香、郁金香、重瓣的牡丹、淡色水仙、法国忍冬、樱花、李花和梅花、抽叶的山椃、丁香。在五月和六月里来的则有各种的石竹,尤其是娇羞石竹;各种的蔷薇,惟有那开得较晚的麝香蔷薇不在其内;忍冬、杨莓、紫草、耧斗菜、法国万寿菊、非洲万寿菊、结果实的樱桃树、醋栗、结果实的无花果树、蔗莓、葡萄花、熏衣草、开白花的香兰、百合草、铃兰、苹果花。七月间则有各种的紫罗兰、麝香蔷薇、开花的菩提树、早熟的梨与结实的李、两种早熟的林檎。八月里来的有各种结实的李树、梨、杏、伏牛花、榛子、甜瓜、各种颜色的附子。九月里来的有葡萄、苹果、各种颜色的罂粟花、桃子、半边红而肉色黄的桃子、油桃、山茱萸、冬梨、榅桲。在十月和十一月底月初则有楸子、枸杞、洋李、插枝或移植以求其晚开的蔷薇、蜀葵以及和这些一类的东西。这些花木之类都是就伦敦底气候而言的;但是我底意思是显然易见的,就是你可以按着各地方底出产而享有一种“永久的春天”也。

And because the breath of flowers is far sweeter in the air (where it comes and goes like the warbling of music) than in the hand, therefore nothing is more fit for that delight, than to know what be the flowers and plants that do best perfume the air. Roses, damask and red, are fast flowers of their smells; so that you may walk by a whole row of them, and find nothing of their sweetness; yea though it be in a morning’s dew. Bays likewise yield no smell as they grow. Rosemary little; nor sweet marjoram. That which above all others yields the sweetest smell in the air is the violet, specially the white double violet, which comes twice a year; about the middle of April, and about Bartholomew-tide. Next to that is the musk-rose. Then the strawberry-leaves dying, which yield a most excellent cordial smell. Then the flower of vines; it is a little dust, like the dust of a bent, which grows upon the cluster in the first coming forth. Then sweet-briar. Then wall-flowers, which are very delightful to be set under a parlor or lower chamber window. Then pinks and gilliflowers, especially the matted pink and clove gilliflower. Then the flowers of the lime-tree. Then the honeysuckles, so they be somewhat afar off. Of beanflowers I speak not, because they are field flowers. But those which perfume the air most delightfully, not passed by as the rest, but being trodden upon and crushed, are three; that is, burnet, wildthyme, and watermints. Therefore you are to set whole alleys of them, to have the pleasure when you walk or tread.
因为花卉底香气在空气中(在空气中花香底来去是类似音乐底鸣奏的)比在人底手里香得多,所以为了那种闻香底至乐,再没有比懂得那几种花卉是最能于采择之前在空气中散布芬芳的这种事更为适合需要的了。蔷薇、淡红的和大红的,都是严守香气的花,所以你尽可以走过一大排的蔷薇之旁而闻不到一点他们底香气,这些花甚至于在清晨底露水之下也是如此的。月桂在长大底期间也不放香。迷迭香香气无多;茉沃剌那香气也少。在空气中所放的香气最大,超过其他的一切花草的,要数香堇,尤其是白色重瓣的。这种花一年中发花两次;一次在四月中旬,另一次在圣巴素罗缪节左右。其次就是麝香蔷薇、再就是将落的杨莓叶子,它能发一种最爽心的香气。然后就是葡萄花;这种花是小粉花,好象小糠草底粉花一样,是在葡萄穗初发的时候开的。然后就是野蔷薇。然后就是黄紫罗兰花;这种花如果种在一座客厅或低层的小室底窗下是大可增人兴趣的。然后就是各种的石竹和紫罗兰,尤其是花坛石竹和丁香石竹。然后是菩提树底花。 然后是忍冬花,只是要远一点才好。关于豆花我不想说什么,因为他们是田间的花。然后,那最善于在空气中散布芬芳的同时并非任人徘徊其侧而是受人践踏压碎的花共有三种;就是,地榆、野百里香和水薄荷。 因此你应该种植这些花,把他们遍栽在整条的园径上,以便你在散步或践踏草地的时候能享受他们底香气。

For gardens (speaking of those which are indeed princelike, as we have done of buildings), the contents ought not well to be under thirty acres of ground; and to be divided into three parts; a green in the entrance; a heath or desert in the going forth; and the main garden in the midst; besides alleys on both sides. And I like well that four acres of ground be assigned to the green; six to the heath; four and four to either side; and twelve to the main garden. The green hath two pleasures: the one, because nothing is more pleasant to the eye than green grass kept finely shorn; the other, because it will give you a fair alley in the midst, by which you may go in front upon a stately hedge, which is to enclose the garden. But because the alley will be long, and, in great heat of the year or day, you ought not to buy the shade in the garden, by going in the sun through the green, therefore you are, of either side the green, to plant a covert alley upon carpenter’s work, about twelve foot in height, by which you may go in shade into the garden. As for the making of knots or figures, with divers colored earths, that they may lie under the windows of the house on that side which the garden stands, they be but toys; you may see as good sights, many times, in tarts. The garden is best to be square, encompassed on all the four sides with a stately arched hedge. The arches to be upon pillars of carpenter’s work, of some ten foot high, and six foot broad; and the spaces between of the same dimension with the breadth of the arch. Over the arches let there be an entire hedge of some four foot high, framed also upon carpenter’s work; and upon the upper hedge, over every arch, a little turret, with a belly, enough to receive a cage of birds: and over every space between the arches some other little figure, with broad plates of round colored glass gilt, for the sun to play upon. But this hedge I intend to be raised upon a bank, not steep, but gently slope, of some six foot, set all with flowers. Also I understand, that this square of the garden, should not be the whole breadth of the ground, but to leave on either side, ground enough for diversity of side alleys; unto which the two covert alleys of the green, may deliver you. But there must be no alleys with hedges, at either end of this great enclosure; not at the hither end, for letting your prospect upon this fair hedge from the green; nor at the further end, for letting your prospect from the hedge, through the arches upon the heath.
至于花园(我们现在所说的是那些属于王者的花园,就如同上文之论建筑一样),其内部的面积不应当比三十亩过少;并且应当区分为三部;一进园门的地方是一片草地;靠近出口的地方是草莽或荒地;花园底主要部分则在中间;此外两旁还有人走的道路。我以为园地底四亩当作为草地之用,六亩作为荒地之用;两边各占四亩;十二亩作为正园之用。绿草地有两种乐趣:第一,再没有比剪得整整齐齐的绿草更为悦目者;第二,这绿草地将在中间给你一条人行道,由此你可前进到一片堂皇的篱垣之前,这篱垣是用以围绕正中的花园的。但是因为这条道儿不免稍长,并且在一年或一天之中天气最热的时候,你不应当为求园中的荫凉而先付在阳光下行过草地的代价,所以你必须在花园底两边,各布置一个有荫蔽的通路,由木工装置约12英尺高的架子;由这些通路你可以达到园中的荫凉。至于用各种颜色的泥土安设花坛,使成图案,企图把他们摆在临近花园底那一部分居室底窗下的事情,不过是玩意儿,你在糖果点心之中也常常可以看见同样的美景的。花园底主要部分最好是正方的,四面用堂皇的带拱门的篱垣围绕。这些拱门应当筑在木工制作的柱子之上;他们应该约有10英尺高,6英尺宽;并且拱门之间的距离应该与每个拱门的宽一样。在这些拱门之上还应当有一圈整个的篱墙,高约4英尺,也凭木工制作;在这上一层的篱墙上面,在每个拱门底上头,要有一个小角楼,中部圆形凸出,能容一个鸟笼:在每个拱门之间的地方上头应该有些别样的雕象刻工之类,盖上宽广的各色玻璃砖,以便阳光在上面游戏。但是这个篱墙我是要把它建筑在一个坡上,不是一个峻坂,而是一道很平易的斜坡,高约6英尺,遍栽花草。并且,我底意思是这个方形的花园其宽度不应当占据整个园地底宽度,而应当在两边留出地方来,做成许多的小径,这些小径可由上述的那两个有覆盖的通路达到。但是在这块大方地底两端决不可有带篱墙的径路;在前面的一端不可有,因为如果有了就会阻碍你底视线,使你从前面草地上望过来的时候看不清那美观的篱垣;在后面的一端也不可有,因为如果有了又将阻碍你底视线,使你从篱垣底拱门望出去的时候看不清后面的草莽之地。

For the ordering of the ground, within the great hedge, I leave it to variety of device; advising nevertheless, that whatsoever form you cast it into, first, it be not too busy, or full of work. Wherein I, for my part, do not like images cut out in juniper or other garden stuff; they be for children. Little low hedges, round, like welts, with some pretty pyramids, I like well; and in some places, fair columns upon frames of carpenter’s work. I would also have the alleys, spacious and fair. You may have closer alleys, upon the side grounds, but none in the main garden. I wish also, in the very middle, a fair mount, with three ascents, and alleys, enough for four to walk abreast; which I would have to be perfect circles, without any bulwarks or embossments; and the whole mount to be thirty foot high; and some fine banqueting-house, with some chimneys neatly cast, and without too much glass.
至于大篱墙以内的园地底布置,我觉得应该把它留给不同的计划心裁;不过我有一点忠告,就是不论你把它布置成什么样的形状,头一件事情却是不可过于繁复或人工太多。例如我个人就不喜欢在杜松或别的园木上刻画的图象;这一类的东西是为儿童们的。小而低的篱墙,圆如滚边,附带着好看的尖塔,这些是我很喜欢的;还有,在有些地方,美观而有木工雕刻的边缘的柱子也是我所喜欢的,又,我以为园中的那些通路也应当宽广美观。在园子底两侧空地上你也可以有较?而有覆盖的小巷,但是在正中的花园中却不可有这种小巷。在这块花园的正中心,我也以为应当有一座美好的小山,由三级梯磴上达,每一级底顶上留出一圈平地来,其阔足以容四人并肩而行;这些平路我以为应当环绕小山,旁边不应当有任何屏障或凸出之建筑物。整个的小山应当有30英尺高,并且上面应当有一座宴客厅,内有布置得很整洁的壁炉,并且窗户上的玻璃不可太多。

For fountains, they are a great beauty and refreshment; but pools mar all, and make the garden unwholesome, and full of flies and frogs. Fountains I intend to be of two natures: the one that sprinkleth or spouteth water; the other a fair receipt of water, of some thirty or forty foot square, but without fish, or slime, or mud. For the first, the ornaments of images gilt, or of marble, which are in use, do well: but the main matter is so to convey the water, as it never stay, either in the bowls or in the cistern; that the water be never by rest discolored, green or red or the like; or gather any mossiness or putrefaction. Besides that, it is to be cleansed every day by the hand. Also some steps up to it, and some fine pavement about it, doth well. As for the other kind of fountain, which we may call a bathing pool, it may admit much curiosity and beauty; wherewith we will not trouble ourselves: as, that the bottom be finely paved, and with images; the sides likewise; and withal embellished with colored glass, and such things of lustre; encompassed also with fine rails of low statuas. But the main point is the same which we mentioned in the former kind of fountain; which is, that the water be in perpetual motion, fed by a water higher than the pool, and delivered into it by fair spouts, and then discharged away under ground, by some equality of bores, that it stay little. And for fine devices, of arching water without spilling, and making it rise in several forms (of feathers, drinking glasses, canopies, and the like), they be pretty things to look on, but nothing to health and sweetness.
至于喷水池,乃是很美而且很能爽人的东西;但是水塘一类的东西则有损于一切,而且使园子变得不合卫生,充满了蚊蝇和青蛙。我以为泉应有两种:一种是喷水或冒水的;一种是一个好看的容水的方池,三四丈见方,但是内中没有鱼,粘土和淤泥。为第一种的泉,如今通用的那些?的或大理石的雕像一类的装饰品是很好的;不过主要的问题却在如何设法使泉水流通,不要停滞在下面的圆池或水槽里面,以免这水的颜色变丑,或红或绿等等,或者聚集苔藓及腐臭之物。此外还应当每天用人工使之清洁。泉下设石级,四周铺砌一部分的地面,也是很好的。至于那另外的一种我们可以叫做“浴池”的水泉,在它上面我们是可以用许多的奇思及美感的;这些都可以不必细说。举例言之,如泉底精为铺砌,并且砌成图形;两旁也照样铺砌;并饰以有颜色的玻璃和类此的有光彩的东西;周围再环以雕像等等的办法皆是也。但是主要的问题还是如上述的关于第一种水泉的一样;就是,如何可以使泉水永远流动,而于其来源则养以较高一层之水池,通以美观的水笕,然后用距离相等的水孔或水管使水由地下外泄,不致停滞泉中。至于那些细巧的设计,使水流如虹而不溢,或使水上升而以各种形式喷射(如鸟羽,酒杯,天盖等等的形状),那都是看起来很好看的东西,但是对于养生和娱心是没有什么帮助的。

For the heath, which was the third part of our plot, I wish it to be framed, as much as may be, to a natural wildness. Trees I would have none in it, but some thickets made only of sweet-briar and honeysuckle, and some wild vine amongst; and the ground set with violets, strawberries, and primroses. For these are sweet, and prosper in the shade. And these to be in the heath, here and there, not in any order. I like also little heaps, in the nature of mole-hills (such as are in wild heaths), to be set, some with wild thyme; some with pinks; some with germander, that gives a good flower to the eye; some with periwinkle; some with violets; some with strawberries; some with cowslips; some with daisies; some with red roses; some with lilium convallium; some with sweet-williams red; some with bear’s-foot: and the like low flowers, being withal sweet and sightly. Part of which heaps, are to be with standards of little bushes pricked upon their top, and part without. The standards to be roses; juniper; holly; berberries (but here and there, because of the smell of their blossoms); red currants; gooseberries; rosemary; bays; sweetbriar; and such like. But these standards to be kept with cutting, that they grow not out of course.
至于那本是我们底园地之第三部分的草莽之地,我以为应当尽其可能地做成荒野的样子。 在其中我以为决不应当有任何树木,除了几丛野蔷薇和忍冬,其间再杂以野葡萄之类的植物;地上则多植香堇,杨莓和樱草。因为这些花都有香气,而且在有荫的地方长得很茂盛。这些花底栽法,应该是散布在草莽之区的各处,这里那里地,并不要什么一定的分配或次序。我也很喜欢鼹鼠丘一类的小土堆(就象真正的草野中所有的一样)。这些小土堆,有些上面应该栽植野百里香;有些应该栽石竹;有些栽石蚕花,那是一种看起来很好看的花;有些栽长春花;有些栽香堇;有些栽杨莓;有些栽野樱草;有些栽雏菊;有些栽红玫瑰;有些栽铃兰;有些栽红色捕虫瞿麦;有些栽熊掌花;以及这一类不甚名贵,然而有香气而又好看的花草。这些小土堆中的一部分应该在顶上有小丛的独立木另一部分则不必有。这些独立木的种类应当是玫瑰、杜松、冬青、伏牛花(但是这花只可偶而有之,因为它底气味过浓,使人闷恹)、红醋粟、桃金娘、迷迭香、月桂、野蔷薇等等。但是他们都应当常剪,以免长得凌乱难看。

For the side grounds, you are to fill them with variety of alleys, private, to give a full shade, some of them, wheresoever the sun be. You are to frame some of them, likewise, for shelter, that when the wind blows sharp you may walk as in a gallery. And those alleys must be likewise hedged at both ends, to keep out the wind; and these closer alleys must be ever finely gravelled, and no grass, because of going wet. In many of these alleys, likewise, you are to set fruit-trees of all sorts; as well upon the walls, as in ranges. And this would be generally observed, that the borders wherein you plant your fruit-trees, be fair and large, and low, and not steep; and set with fine flowers, but thin and sparingly, lest they deceive the trees. At the end of both the side grounds, I would have a mount of some pretty height, leaving the wall of the enclosure breast high, to look abroad into the fields.
至于那园中两侧的隙地,应该在其中多设各种的巷路,要幽静,并且其中的一部分要能遮蔽阳光,无论阳光是从那一方面来。并且应当把他们之中的另一部分造成辟风的,以便在风吹得很厉害的时候,在里面走路如在有遮蔽的廊中走路一般。那些头一种的巷路也应当在两端用篱墙围上,以避烈风,而这些第二种的狭巷则必须要永远铺以细石,而且不要长草,以免露湿了人底鞋袜。在这些衖巷底大多数之中,也应当栽植各种的果树,使他们或攀缘墙壁,或自成行列。不过这一点应当普遍地注意,就是在里面种植果树的树床应该是美好,宽阔而低的,不可过高;里面也可种些好花,但是应该种得稀少,否则恐怕他们要妨害那些树木。在两旁侧地底尽头处,我以为应当各有一座不甚高的小山,其高度须使人立于其上的时节园墙不能高过人底胸部。登上了这些小山,可以望四周的田野。

For the main garden, I do not deny, but there should be some fair alleys ranged on both sides, with fruit-trees; and some pretty tufts of fruittrees, and arbors with seats, set in some decent order; but these to be by no means set too thick; but to leave the main garden so as it be not close, but the air open and free. For as for shade, I would have you rest upon the alleys of the side grounds, there to walk, if you be disposed, in the heat of the year or day; but to make account, that the main garden is for the more temperate parts of the year; and in the heat of summer, for the morning and the evening, or overcast days.
至于正中的花园,有人主张其两边应当有美观的衖巷,植以果树;园中还应当有些上栽着果树的好看的小山,设有座位的亭子,这一切都须安排得宜。对于这种说法我并不反对,不过这些东西决不可过密;反之,正中的花园不可有闭塞的情形,而应当使其中的空气流通无阻。因为,若讲到荫蔽的问题,我以为应当求之于两侧隙地的衖巷,在这些衖巷之中,假如一个人愿意的话,他可以在一年或一日最热的时候散步;但是他应当把正中的花园认为是为一年中较温和的季节而设的;在暑热中,则这一部分是为晨夕或阴天而设的。

For aviaries, I like them not, except they be of that largeness as they may be turfed, and have living plants and bushes set in them; that the birds may have more scope, and natural nesting, and that no foulness appear in the floor of the aviary. So I have made a platform of a princely garden, partly by precept, partly by drawing, not a model, but some general lines of it; and in this I have spared for no cost. But it is nothing for great princes, that for the most part taking advice with workmen, with no less cost set their things together; and sometimes add statuas and such things for state and magnificence, but nothing to the true pleasure of a garden.
至于鸟埘一类的东西我是不喜欢它们的,除非它们底大小可以容地下铺草皮并且栽种活的植物或矮树丛;如此,那所养的鸟儿们就可以较有活动之余地,并且可以有自然的巢棲之地,在鸟埘下的地面上也不至于有污秽底情形了。
如上所言,我已经替一个王者底花园造了一个模型了。我所用的方法一部分是议论,一部分是规划,所规划者不是一个具体的模型,而是它底轮廓。在这方面我也没有想到省费用的问题,但是这种问题在王公大人是不成问题的。他们多半采取匠人底意见,把许多事物布置在一起,而其所费并不见得比我底计划节省;有时他们还增加雕象,以及此类的东西,所为的是堂皇富丽,然而这于真正的园亭之乐却是没有什么帮助的。
 

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